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A

  • Autoimmune Disease : Condition where immune system attacks body's own tissues.
  • Atrophy : Wasting away of organ or tissue due to disease or aging.
  • Atherosclerosis : Buildup of plaque in arteries, narrowing blood flow.
  • Asthma : Chronic respiratory condition causing airway inflammation and constriction.
  • Arthritis : Inflammation of joints causing pain and stiffness.
  • Arrhythmia : Abnormal heart rhythm caused by electrical disturbances.
  • Antioxidant : Substances protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals.
  • Antihistamine : Medication blocking histamine to treat allergy symptoms.
  • Antidepressant : Medication used to treat mood disorders like depression.
  • Anticoagulants : Drugs that prevent blood clot formation.
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B

  • Bypass : A procedure diverting the flow of blood or other fluids, such as coronary artery bypass surgery to redirect blood flow around a blocked coronary artery.
  • Bunion : A painful bump at the base of the big toe, often caused by the abnormal growth of bone or tissue.
  • Bronchiole : Small airway in the respiratory system connecting to the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs.
  • Brain imaging : Techniques to view the structure or function of the brain, including CT, MRI, fMRI, and PET scans.
  • Bradycardia : Abnormally slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute.
  • Brachytherapy : Cancer treatment involving the implantation of radioactive seeds or pellets into the body to kill cancer cells.
  • Bone scan : A test using radioactive material to produce images of bones, often used to detect cancer or bone diseases.
  • Body mass index (BMI) : A measure of body fat based on height and weight, used to assess health risks related to weight.
  • Blood pressure : The force exerted by blood against the walls of arteries; optimal blood pressure is typically less than 120/80 mm Hg.
  • Blood clot : A solid mass formed when blood cells clump together, often to stop bleeding.
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C

  • Cyst : Noncancerous abnormal growth in the body.
  • CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) : Life-saving technique combining chest compressions and rescue breathing.
  • Corticosteroids : Synthetic hormones used for various medical conditions.
  • Coronary artery disease : Narrowing or blockage of heart arteries.
  • Complication : An additional medical problem or condition that arises during the course of a disease, disorder, treatment, or surgical procedure.
  • Colonoscopy : Procedure examining colon using a flexible tube.
  • Cognition : Brain functions like thinking and memory.
  • Clinical trial : Study testing therapies in humans.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome : Disorder causing severe, ongoing fatigue.
  • Cholesterol : Waxy substance vital for cell structure and hormone production.
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D

  • Dyspnea : Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath.
  • Dysplasia : Abnormal cell changes.
  • Dysphagia : Difficulty swallowing.
  • Dyspepsia : Upper abdomen discomfort.
  • Dysarthria : Speech difficulty from brain injury.
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry : Test to measure bone density and detect osteoporosis.
  • Dry eye : Condition causing irritation due to inadequate tear production.
  • Double-blind : Research study where neither researchers nor participants know who receives the treatment and who receives a placebo.
  • DNA : Genetic material containing instructions for cell function.
  • Diverticulitis : Inflammation of small pouches in the colon wall.
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E

  • External otitis : An infection or irritation of the outer ear, ear canal, or both. Also called "swimmer’s ear."
  • Exostosis : The formation of abnormal bony growths, typically within the ear canal. These growths are often associated with frequent exposure to cold water, such as swimming, and are sometimes colloquially referred to as "surfer's ear."
  • Estrogen : Any of a group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body. It is also produced in smaller amounts in males' testes and adrenal glands.
  • Esophagitis : Irritation and swelling of the esophagus.
  • Erythema : Redness of the skin, typically caused by the dilation of capillaries located just beneath the skin's surface.
  • Epidural space : The area between the spinal cord and the vertebrae of the spinal column, where pain-relieving medications are commonly administered via injection.
  • Epicardium : Outer layer of the heart wall.
  • Eosinophils : White blood cells involved in allergic reactions.
  • Enzyme : Substance speeding up chemical reactions.
  • Enteric nervous system : Nervous system part controlling gastrointestinal function.
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F

  • Fungus : Microorganism causing infections.
  • Fundus photography : Retinal imaging.
  • Fundoplication : Anti-reflux surgery.
  • Functional incontinence : Inability to reach the bathroom due to physical or mental limitations.
  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders : Non-structural gut issues.
  • Fructose : Simple sugar found in various sources.
  • Frozen shoulder : Shoulder stiffness and inflammation.
  • Frontotemporal lobar degeneration : Brain disorder causing dementia and personality changes.
  • Frontal lobe : Brain area involved in decision-making.
  • Frequency response : Hearing aid amplification distribution.
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G

  • Gum disease : Oral tissue and tooth support structure diseases.
  • Gullet : Esophagus.
  • Guardianship : Legal decision-making authority for incapacitated individuals.
  • Growth factor : Substance promoting tissue growth.
  • Greenstick fracture : Incomplete bone break in young, soft bones.
  • Graves’ disease : Thyroid overactivity due to autoimmunity.
  • Graft : Transplanted tissue.
  • Gout : Arthritis from uric acid buildup in joints.
  • Gonioscopy : Glaucoma test examining eye fluid drainage.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone : Pituitary hormone controlling FSH and LH.
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H

  • Hysterectomy : An operation to remove a woman’s uterus.
  • Hypothalamus : A small area in the brain responsible for producing hormones that regulate various essential functions such as body temperature, hunger, mood, stress response, and other vital processes.
  • Hypotension : The medical term for low blood pressure.
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) : A condition where arteries experience increased pressure during circulation.
  • Hyaluronic acid : A hydrating substance that occurs naturally in the human body, particularly in connective tissues, skin, and eyes.
  • HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) : A system that controls many hormonal activities in the body, including the stress response.
  • Hot flash : A sudden and intense sensation of heat, typically felt in the face or upper part of the body. A symptom of menopause.
  • Hormones : Chemicals regulating various bodily processes.
  • Hormone therapy : Hormone level-boosting treatment.
  • Homocystinuria : Genetic disorder elevating homocysteine levels.
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I

  • Immunosuppressant drug : Medication suppressing immune response.
  • Immunologically privileged site : Body part where immune response is restricted.
  • Immunoglobulin : Antibodies produced by the immune system.
  • Immunization : Injection of harmless microbes for antibody production.
  • Immunity : Body's resistance to infection.
  • Immobilize : Restricting body part movement for healing.
  • Immediate hypersensitivity : Allergic reaction type triggered by specific allergens and IgE.
  • Iliopsoas muscles : Thigh to spine muscles lifting the knee.
  • Ileum : Last part of the small intestine.
  • IgE : Immunoglobulin E, triggering most allergic reactions.
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J

  • Joint hypermobility syndrome : A genetic condition that characterizes extremely flexible joints along with pain and other symptoms. Colloquially, it is also called having “loose joints” or being “double-jointed”.
  • Joint : A junction in the body where bones are connected together.
  • Jaundice : When skin or the sclera (whites) of the eyes develop a yellowish hue, it could indicate a serious condition like liver disease, requiring immediate medical help.
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K

  • Kyphoplasty : Surgical intervention to alleviate pain from spinal fractures and restore collapsed vertebrae to their normal size.
  • Knock knees (genu valgum) : A condition where the knees angle inward while the ankles maintain a wider separation.
  • Knee ligament surgery : Reconstructive surgery might be required if the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is damaged.
  • Kidney transplant : The transplantation of a healthy kidney into the body of an individual with minimal or no renal function.
  • Kidney stones : Kidney stones are commonly located in the kidneys or the ureter, which is the tube linking the kidneys to the bladder. If untreated, they can cause severe pain and may result in kidney infections or impaired kidney function.
  • Kidney infection : A discomforting and unpleasant condition typically resulting from cystitis, which is a frequent bladder infection.
  • Kidney failure : The advanced stage of chronic kidney disease, where the kidneys lose their ability to filter waste from the body.
  • Ketones : Substances generated when the body metabolizes fat for energy or when insulin levels are insufficient.
  • Keshan disease : Heart disease caused by selenium deficiency, essential for proper bodily function.
  • Keratoderma blennorrhagica : A skin rash sometimes associated with Reiter's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder.
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L

  • Laxative : A substance or medication that promotes bowel movements or softens stool.
  • Laser prostatectomy : A surgical procedure for treating an enlarged prostate using a high-energy laser to remove excess tissue.
  • Laser photocoagulation : A surgical technique employing lasers to seal off blood vessels in the eye, commonly used in the treatment of certain eye conditions.
  • Laser hair removal : A method of permanent hair removal utilizing laser technology to target hair follicles.
  • Laser : A focused beam of light used in various medical procedures and surgeries.
  • Larynx : The voice box, located in the throat, responsible for producing sound and protecting the airway during swallowing.
  • Laryngitis : Inflammation of the voice box (larynx), often resulting in hoarseness or loss of voice.
  • Laparoscopy : A sort of keyhole surgery used for diagnosis and treatment. For operations inside the abdomen or pelvis, it enables a surgeon to employ only tiny incisions and a camera.
  • Laminectomy : A surgical procedure involving the removal of one or both lamina, typically performed to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.
  • Lamina : One of the thin, plate-like parts of each vertebra.
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